In this tutorial we are going to learn :
- Classes in Python
- Creating A Class
- Private Members
Classes in Python
Python is an object-oriented programming language. Almost everything in Python is an object.
Important concepts :
- Class : helps us to create an object and it is simply a blueprint of an object.
- Object : an instance of a class.
- Method : A function which is created in the class.
- Attributes : A variable bound to an instance of a class.
Let’s give an example Class and Object
Class : Animal
Object : Cat, Dog, Bird.
Creating A Class
We use the class keyword to create a class.
Class name rule : First letter of each internal word should be upper case.
The example programs above are classes and objects in their simplest form. To understand the meaning of classes we have to understand the constructors ( __init__ function ) .
- All classes have __init__ function and it is always executed when the class is being
As you can see when we create a constructor and create variables we can access his variables from outside.
- the self parameter is a reference to the current instance of the object. So we can access the variables.
- The self parameter is a reference to the current instance of the class and we use to access variables that belong to the class.
To make our variables private, we use double underscores ( __ ) .
- As you can see we can’t access our private name variable and our program raise an error.