In this tutorial we are going to learn :

• What is a Set and How They are Created
• Accessing Items
• Removing Items
• Using Mathematical Operators in Set

### What is a Set and How They Are Created ?

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Set is an unordered and unindexed collection of items.

• Every set item must be unique.
• We use curly brackets to create a set.

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Example :

``````first_set = {"James", "John", "Adam"}
second_set = {1, 2, 3, 4}
third_set = {"David", 1, 2.7, "a"}

print(type(first_set))
print(type(second_set))
print(type(third_set)) ``````
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• We can also use the set() function to create a set.

Example :

``````# we can use set() function to create set

first_list = [1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5]
second_list = ["a", "b", "b", "c", "b", "d"]
my_tuple = (1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 4, 5)

first_set = set(first_list)
second_set = set(second_list)
third_set = set(my_tuple)

print(first_set)
print(second_set)
print(third_set) ``````

### Accessing Items

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Sets are unordered the items have no index. We cannot access items in a set by referring to an index number .

But We can use the in keyword to learn if the item we are looking for is in our set.

Example :

``````my_set = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

if 1 in my_set:
print("exist")

# or we can check for True, False value
print(1 in my_set)
print(0 in my_set) ``````

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There are two ways to add item to a set.

• To add just one item , you can use the add() method.
• To add more than one item to a set , you can use the update() method.

Example:Â

``````my_set = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

print(my_set)

print(my_set)

# we use update() method to add multiple items
my_set.update([7, 8, 9])
print(my_set) ``````

### Removing Items

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To remove item, we have some methods :

• remove () : method removes the item but if the item to remove doesn’t exist, remove () will raise an error.
• discard () : method removes the items and if the item to remove doesn’t exist , discard will not raise an error.
del : method removes all set items.

Example :

``````my_set = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}

print(my_set)

my_set.remove(1)
print(my_set)

#if item does not exist, remove() method will raise an error. We use discard() method
print(my_set)

# We can use clear() method to delete all items
my_set.clear()
print(my_set) ``````

### Using Mathematical Operators in Set

The operators we use in set :

• |      : will return a new set that includes all items.
• &     : will return a new set that includes both items.
• –       : difference between two set.
• ^      : symmetric difference between two set.

Example :

``````first_set = {1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
second_set = {1, 6}

print(first_set | second_set)   # this will return a new set that include all items
print(first_set & second_set)   # this will return a new set that include both  items
print(first_set - second_set    # difference between two sets
print(first_set ^ second_set)   # symmetric difference between two sets ``````